Medicine is defined as science as well as art of curing humans, in terms of preventing and treating illnesses. The advancement in science and technology has shown the medical science to be becoming more dependent on medications.
Medicine is a very vast area, and no knowledge is sufficient knowledge in this area. It deals mainly with internal medicine and surgery. Internal medicine is the medical area which deals with diagnosis, management and treatment of diseases. This specialization now has many sub-specialities e. G. Gastroenterologists, Nephrologists, Paediatricians, Geriatricians, Haematology etc. The specialized training takes between 3-5 years to complete.
The clinical examination of the patient is based on several parameters. Some of these parameters include vital signs (e. G. Blood pressure, respiration rate etc.); the general appearance (e. G. Jaundice etc.), skin, neurological, psychiatric, abdomen, musculoskeletal etc.
Surgery is defined in terms of operative treatment. The minimum requirement for surgical training is the five year residency after graduation. The sub-specialities of surgery e. G. Cardiovascular surgery, oncologic surgery, orthopaedic surgery and many more, require about seven years to be a specialist surgeon in a particular field.
There are now diagnostic specialities which pertain to laboratory tests and techniques for diagnosis and management of patients. The clinical laboratories do the tests and assays for the diagnostic purposes.
Pathology is another branch which deals with morphological and physiological changes in relation to certain diseases. The pathological tests play a significant role in evidence-based medicine. Some of the molecular tests which fall into this category are Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry etc.
Equally important is the branch of Radiology which deals with x-ray, Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) etc. The other major specialities are Emergency Medicine, Dermatology and Medical Genetics etc.
Compounding pharmacy specialises in the production of supplements, medication and natural hormones. The nutritional medical science is based on the principle of physiological imbalance of the diseases. It is not intended to just treat the symptoms. The men and women receive treatments in the form of bioidentical hormones for sex hormone imbalances. The imbalances could be because of thyroid, adrenal and other hormones also. Compounding pharmacy produces antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, amino acid combinations. These supplements are then modified to meet the specific needs of individuals.
Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT) is a natural hormone therapy which makes use of hormones, which are similar to those hormones; which generate from within organism or tissue. This BHRT therapy has strong association with pharmacy compounding. In addition, blood and saliva testing is also associated with it. The major particular hormones used in BHRT are estradiol, estrone and progesterone.
The BHRT is claimed to be very effective but it is hard to prove. There is no direct evidence. The FDA manufactured approved products are available as estradiol, estrone and progesterone but pharmacy compounded products are not approved. The conventional goals of the hormone replacement therapy are reducing the risk of menopause and osteoporosis. But the BHRT defies all these and claims to treat all diseases. These compounded products are predicted to have same side-effects, when compared to already approved drugs. The BHRT may have the potential of additional risks, because of their preparation procedures, which involve compounding.
Medicine is practiced by the physicians, who are qualified and are registered to treat patients.