The pituitary gland is referred to as the master gland of the body. This is because it controls almost all the body’s hormonal functions by secreting nine particular hormones like prolactin, oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone [ADH], thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and human growth hormone – all of which manage actions of additional hormonal glands.
The pituitary gland is divided into two lobes: front or anterior and rear or posterior. Benign tumors ordinarily grow about the anterior portion of the gland. Tumors rarely develop about the posterior part of it. The majority of brain tumors are pituitary tumors, making them the third most typical variety of brain tumor. Among the pituitary tumors, pituitary adenomas are the most common. These adenomas may additionally be classified depending on the sort of hormones they secrete. Hormonal imbalance is a very common clinical indication of the disease.
The etiology of pituitary adenoma is undiscovered. Researches show that it results from DNA shifts contributing to rapid, unrestrained growth, sufficient to compress bordering cells and structures. In rare circumstances, these tumors result in spontaneous hemorrhage or may bring about infarction. Optic chiasm, which is typically found above the pituitary gland, is commonly impacted resulting in double vision and ultimately to progressive decrease in eyesight.
Additional warning signs linked to tumor’s location are lingering headache, decrease in peripheral vision, ptosis, seizures, facial numbness, hyperphagia or excessive eating and hypophagia or abnormal eating of small amount of food. Other symptoms linked to the hormone it releases are: hyperhydrosis or excessive sweating, appetite decline, loss of sexual desire, queasiness, difficulties concerning menstrual periods, bowel irregularity and polyuria or excessive urination, growth delay, pubertal delays and galactorrhea or milk secretion without pregnancy. Surgery, radiotherapy, stereostatic radiosurgery and cyberknife are possible treatment options for pituitary adenomas.
Treatments for pituitary adenomas depend on its location, the kind of hormone produced and its degree of metastasis. Each treatment method aims to stabilize hormonal levels and to eliminate or reduce the tumor’s size. In a surgical treatment, elimination of the tumor is completed through craniotomy. However, once the pituitary gland is taken away or weakened, life-long hormonal replacement therapy is necessary. Prevalent clinical risks brought about by the procedure is meningitis, which is a consequence of leakage of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose triggering the inflammation of brain and spinal column membranes. Alternatively, radiotherapy could be accomplished as adjunctive therapy to the surgical removal of the tumor. Stereotactic radiosurgery employs highly accurate radiation beams to shrink the tumor. This is usually done to individuals whose tumors will not respond to surgery or medication. Among the stereostatic radiosurgeries, cyberknife is regarded as the common and effective.
Cyberknife Treatment for pituitary adenoma possesses the benefits of both standard radiation and radiosurgery treatment. The treatment minimizes the radiation risk to susceptible structures around the tumor including optic chiasm and hypothalamus. Among the treatments, cyberknife is pain-free. No screws, scalpels and support frames are used. It uses high doses of radiation to correctly concentrate on the tumor, lessening trauma and destruction to surrounding tissues. Danger of hemorrhage or blood loss is likewise prevented. This procedure could be performed upon an out-patient basis. Consequently, the individual can resume his ordinary lifestyle after the procedure; no recuperation time is required. Noted for this effective method of procedure is the Colorado Cyberknife VSI. They prefer the most recent equipment and computer software to assist more patients in precisely treating their tumors, in less time while diminishing possibility for complications. Because of this, they are well-known in the field of oncology.